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The Rhinotherma has split from its ancestor and evolved to thrive in the unusual conditions of the Rhino Vents.

Unlike other vent systems the water around the Rhino Vents is oxygenated, presenting unique challenges for the Rhinotherma because their sulfur reducing metabolism requires anaerobic conditions. As a result the actual sulfur reduction now takes place in newly developed organelles called sulphuroplasts the membrane of which provides an additional barrier to oxygen. In addition Rhinothermas are larger with a proportionally thicker cell wall and cytoplasm that contains high levels of antioxidants further insulating the sulphuroplasts from the disruptive influence of oxygen.

Like related species they form colonies around hydrothermal vents. They reproduce by binary fission under normal circumstances but produce resting spores instead when under stress.